- High, Mark R.
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Although the Corporate Transparency Act (the “Act”) was adopted in 2021, implementation has been delayed while the Department of Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (“FinCEN”) established regulations. The deadline, however, for compliance is fast approaching. Reporting Companies (as defined) formed after January 1, 2024, will need to file reports within 30 days after formation. Reporting Companies already existing at the end of 2023 will need to make their initial reports before the end of 2024.
尽管《企业透明法案》于 2021 年获得通过，但由于需要美国财政部金融犯罪执法网络FinCEN制定实施法规，该法案的实施几度被推迟。 然而，该法案合规的最后期限即将到来。2024 年 1 月 1 日后成立的 “应通报公司” (下文定义) 需要在成立后 30 天内提交申报。2023 年底已经存在的 “应通报公司” 需要在 2024 年底之前提交初步申报。
The Act seeks to obtain Beneficial Ownership Information (“BOI”) on individuals who own substantial pieces of, or otherwise control, Reporting Companies. It is the latest effort by the federal government to combat money laundering, tax fraud, and other illegal activity by bad actors. Unfortunately, a lot of good actors will get caught in the crossfire.
该法案旨在获取拥有 “应通报公司” 大量股份或以其他方式控制 “应通报公司” 的个人的实益所有权信息。这是联邦政府打击洗钱、税务欺诈和不良行为者其他非法活动所作出的最新努力。遗憾的是，这一举措会使得很多从事合法行为的公司需要提供额外的信息以证明其符合新法案的规定。
Consistent with the Act’s purpose, this information will be available to federal law enforcement agencies (including Treasury and the IRS), and state and local enforcement agencies with prior court approval. Foreign agencies may also ask for access to the information, either under an international treaty, or as part of certain investigative procedures. Finally, financial institutions and their regulators may obtain access for purposes of satisfying their Know Your Customer requirements. These filings will not be made available to the general public.
Definitions and Exemptions
A “Reporting Company” is an entity formed by filing a document with a secretary of state or similar office under state or tribal law. Thus, corporations, LLCs, and limited partnerships are Reporting Companies, while sole proprietorships and general partnerships would not qualify under most states’ laws. Foreign entities registered to do business in the U.S. are also considered Reporting Companies under the Act.
“应通报公司” 包括依据美国各州或部落法律向州务卿或类似办公室提交文件而成立的实体。因此，股份有限公司，有限责任公司，有限合伙企业都在 “应通报公司” 的范围内。然而个体经营者和普通合伙企业则不在大多数州法律规定的 “应通报公司” 的范围内。依据外国法律成立且获准于美国运营的外国公司也被视为 “应通报公司”。
There are a number of exemptions from the reporting requirements. Most of these cover entities already subject to oversight, such as publicly traded companies, banks and other financial institutions, investment companies, insurance companies, governmental entities, and public utilities. Most accounting firms are exempt, as are non-profits and other tax-exempt entities.
通报义务有许多的豁免情况。大多数的 “应通报公司” 实际已经受到了监管，例如，上市公司、银行和其他金融机构、投资公司、保险公司、政府实体和公用事业。大多数会计师事务所都是豁免通报的，非营利组织和其他免税实体也是如此。
The “large operating company” exemption will cover many privately held companies. To qualify, an entity must have (1) 20 or more full-time employees located in the U.S., (2) annual revenues exceeding $5 million (as shown on its latest tax return), and (3) an office or other physical location within the U.S. (Generally speaking, shared office space does not meet that third qualification.) Most newly formed companies will not qualify for this exemption, as they will not have a prior year tax filing to show compliance with the minimum revenue standard.
另一种豁免情况为“大型运营公司”豁免。其将涵盖许多私营公司。具体来说，私营公司要获得豁免资格，其必须 (1) 在美国拥有 20 名或以上全职员工，(2) 年收入超过 500 万美元（需要在最近一期纳税申报表中显示），以及 (3) 在美国境内拥有办公室或其他具体地点（一般来说，共享办公空间不符合第三个要求）。大多数新成立的公司没有资格获得此豁免，因为他们没有上一年的纳税申报表来证明遵守最低收入标准。
Reporting Companies will need to report BOI on each of its Beneficial Owners. A “Beneficial Owner” is any individual who, directly or indirectly, either (i) exercises substantial control over a reporting company, or (ii) owns or controls at least 25% of the ownership interests of a reporting company. Minor children, custodians, agents, company officers acting solely as employees, individuals with only a future inheritance right, and creditors of a Reporting Company are not generally considered Beneficial Owners.
“应通报公司” 需要申报其每个受益所有人的实益所有权信息。“受益所有人”是指直接或间接 (i) 对 “应通报公司” 行使实质控制权，或 (ii) 拥有或控制 “应通报公司” 至少 25% 的所有权权益的任何个人。未成年子女、监护人、代理人、仅作为雇员的公司管理人员、仅拥有未来继承权的个人以及 “应通报公司” 的债权人通常不被视为受益所有人。
“Substantial control” means serving as a senior officer, having authority over the appointment or removal of a senior officer or a majority of the board (or similar body), directing important decisions, or having any other form of substantial influence or control over a Reporting Company.
“实质性控制”是指担任高级管理人员，有权任命或罢免高级管理人员或董事会（或类似机构）的多数成员，指导重要决策，或对 “应通报公司” 有任何其他形式的实质性影响或控制。
“Ownership interests” is broadly defined and can include profits interests, convertible notes, and options to acquire equity interests. The Act seeks to look through any holding company owners to identify the individuals who ultimately have substantial interests in a company.
Information to be Provided
Reporting Companies are to report the following BOI for each Beneficial Owner: (1) full legal name, (2) date of birth, (3) current residence address, and (4) the person’s unique identifying number from a passport, driver’s license, or other government-issued document, including a copy of the document which includes a picture. Individuals can register with FinCEN and be assigned a special number to be used in these filings. All filings are to be made online through a form that has not been finalized as of this writing.
“应通报公司” 应申报每位受益所有人的以下实益所有权信息：(1) 法定全名，(2) 出生日期，(3) 当前居住地址，以及 (4) 护照、驾驶执照、 或其他政府颁发的文件，包括包含图片的文件副本。个人可以在 美国财政部金融犯罪执法网络FinCEN 注册并被分配一个特殊号码以用于提交申报。所有申报均需通过截至本文撰写时尚未最终确定的表格进行在线提交。
Reporting Companies formed after January 1, 2024, will also need to report BOI regarding each “Company Applicant”. A “Company Applicant” is the individual who directly files the formation documents (or registration documents for a foreign Reporting Company), as well as the individual primarily responsible for directing the filing. Practically speaking, the attorney drafting or directing the drafting of formation documents, as well as the associate or legal assistant who makes the filing, will qualify as Applicants.
2024 年 1 月 1 日后成立的 “应通报公司” 还需要报告每个“公司申请人”的实益所有权信息。 “公司申请人”是指直接提交设立文件（或外国 “应通报公司” 的注册文件）的个人，以及主要负责指导提交的个人。实际上，起草或指导起草成立文件的律师，以及提出申请的合伙人或法律助理将符合“公司申请人”的条件。
Filing Deadlines; Required Updates
Reporting Companies organized after January 1, 2024, are to file within 30 days after receiving notice of their formation. Reporting Companies existing before January 1, 2024, have until the end of 2024 to submit their required BOI. Companies that are exempt do not need to file.
2024 年 1 月 1 日后成立的 “应通报公司” 应在收到成立通知后 30 天内提交报告。2024 年 1 月 1 日之前成立的 “应通报公司” 必须在 2024 年底之前提交所需的实益所有权信息。获得豁免的公司无需提交文件。
Filings do not need to be renewed, but Reporting Companies will need to update their filings within 30 days after any changes. It will be important to designate someone to monitor a company’s filed information for changes that trigger an update (even something as simple as a officer changing her address).
提交的申报不需要更新，但 “应通报公司” 需要在提交信息有任何更改后 30 天内更新其备案。指派专人监督公司提交的信息以发现有需要更新的更改（即使是高管更改地址这样简单的事情）非常重要。
FinCEN estimates that over 33 million companies (about 90% of America’s business entities) will be required to file under the Act in 2024. The Act imposes substantial penalties on companies that don’t make a required filing and their controlling officers. Existing companies need to evaluate whether they are Reporting Companies and thus will need to file next year, keeping in mind that it may take some time to collect BOI from their Beneficial Owners. Entrepreneurs looking to start a new business in 2024 and beyond need to collect the required information from their investors and management during the formation process, and include these filing requirements in their formation checklists and budgets.
财政部金融犯罪执法网络FinCEN估计，到 2024 年，将有超过 3300 万家公司（约占美国商业实体的 90%）需要根据该法案进行备案。该法案对未按要求进行备案的公司及其控制人员将实施严厉处罚。现有公司需要评估他们是否为 “应通报公司”，且需要在明年进行通报。需要注意的是，从受益所有人那里收集实益所有权信息可能需要一些时间。因此希望在 2024 年及以后创办新企业的企业家需要在组建过程中从投资者和管理层收集所需信息，并将这些申报要求纳入其组建清单和预算中。
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